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Petrographic and Kinematic Analysis of the Itombwe Synclinorium Formations Exposed at Tshondo and Bugoy (South-Kivu region, Democratic Republic of the Congo)

Aganze B. Gloire,Masirika M. Lucien,Ganza B. Gloire,Nandezo W. Robert

Structural basin
The purpose of this study is to investigate the Itombwe synclinorium formations that were affected by the late Pan-African orogenesis in the nordeastern Congo. A variety of controversies surround Tshondo and Bugoy's tectonic evolution and associated metasedimentary formations. A field-based approach combined with paleostress inversion techniques and petrographic analyses were conducted on 190 structural measurements and 6 rock samples used in this study. The results reveal the presence of four major petrographic facies: conglomeratic facies (conglomerate and diamictite), carbonate facies (travertine), greenschist facies (graphitic black shale and pelite), as well as quatzitic facies (quartzite and sandstone). The mineral assemblages consisting of high contents (>70%) of muscovite/sericite and biotite albite, plagioclase, quartz, and some opaque minerals. With the assistance of Win-Tensor software, the kinematic analysis reveals two major deformation phases, (1) a ductile deformation phase (D1-2), which is associated with isoclinal folds and strike-slip faults, and (2) a submeridian brittle deformation phase (D2), which generated extensive faults trending NNW-SSE to NE-SW directions, while reactivating bedding surfaces (NE-SW) in a series of secondary faults. The findings of this research may assist geologists in conducting core logging operations and provide a baseline for understanding the relationship between rock, minerlization, and tectonics in mineral-rich areas.

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