Creating a scale to measure internalized homophobia among self-identified lesbians
Stacy M. Weibley
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Perspectives on Internalized Homophobia: Qualitative Research on Chinese LGBTQ Students in the U.S. and China and Their Romantic Relationships Haoran Li Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles Introduction Literature Review Research Methods Internalized homophobia, defined as a “gay person’s direction of negative social attitudes toward the self, leading to a devaluation of the self and resultant internal conflicts and poor self-regard,” often negatively affects the psychological, physiological and social well-being of both the individual experiencing it as well as the larger LGBTQ community (Meyer, et al., 1998). My research will mainly use qualitative methods. The key independent variable—level of internalized homophobia—will be measured and controlled based on the aforementioned GMHR Internalized Homophobia Scale. In this study, I seek to examine how Chinese LGBTQ students attending universities in the U.S. and China score on the Global Men's Health and Rights Study (GMHRS) Internalized Homophobia Scale. I propose that they experience internalized homophobia, which affects their romantic relationships to a severe degree. Since university students are typically involved in the process of building their identity through experimenting with romantic relationships, it is important to focus a study on this population. I will conduct semi-structured interviews to assess participants’ subjective feelings regarding romantic relationships. I plan to recruit a total of 20 participants—Chinese college students from UCLA and Nanjing University—who consider themselves members of the LGBTQ population. There will be 10 participants from China and the United States respectively. Background Due to the sensitive nature of this topic, I will use snowball sampling to collect interviews to be conducted both face-to-face and online. Discussion I anticipate that students with higher degrees of internalized homophobia will experience more difficulties surrounding their romantic relationships. With an increase in the degree of internalized homophobia, people will have a wider variety of subjective feelings and personal approaches to cope with. I suspect my participants will face more serious problems in their relationships, such as low self-confidence, mood swings, violence, distrust, etc. This research will hopefully lead to more discussion on student perspectives regarding their own internalized homophobia. More importantly, the comparative aspect of this research will contribute to the understanding of LGBTQ communities across national borders and help members of these communities pinpoint problems they must address. Apart from my broader goals with this proposed project, I hope this will help set the stage for my future research to combat and remedy the detrimental effects of this phenomenon according to the needs of different populations. Acknowledgments As these statistics show, In China, internalized homophobia is not only an issue of LGBTQ rights, but also women's rights and children's rights. It is likely that such problems are common in other cultures where the familial and political environments are similar to that of China. Minority Stress Models References Pyun, T., Santos, G. M., Arreola, S., Do, T., Hebert, P., Beck, J., Makofane, K., ... Ayala, G. (January 01, 2014). Internalized homophobia and reduced HIV testing among men who have sex with men in China. Asia-pacific Journal of Public Health / Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health, 26, 2, 118-25. Kelley, T. M., & Robertson, R. A. (January 01, 2008). Relational aggression and victimization in gay male relationships: the role of internalized homophobia. Aggressive Behavior, 34, 5.) Rowen, C., & Malcolm, J. (January 01, 2002). Correlates of Internalized Homophobia and Homosexual Identity Formation in a Sample of Gay Men. Journal of Homosexuality, 43, 2, 77-92. Frost, D. M., & Meyer, I. H. (January 01, 2009). Internalized Homophobia and Relationship Quality among Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56, 1, 97-109. Carvalho, A. F., Lewis, R. J., Derlega, V. J., Winstead, B. A., & Viggiano, C. (October 01, 2011). Internalized Sexual Minority Stressors and Same-Sex Intimate Partner Violence. Journal of Family Violence, 26, 7, 501-509. Cochran, B. N., & Cauce, A. M. (January 01, 2006). Characteristics of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals entering substance abuse treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 30, 2, 135-146. Dr. Ilan H. Meyer, Williams Institute at UCLA School of Law Professor Aliza Luft, UCLA Department of Sociology Stacey Shin, UCLA Department of English Emily Yen, UCLA Department of Sociology Gabriela Wanless, UCLA Undergraduate Research Center Contact Information Haoran Li Email: email@example.com Phone: 707-888-1132
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“Creating a scale to measure internalized homophobia among self-identified lesbians” is a paper by Stacy M. Weibley published in 2009.You can read and download a PDF Full Text of this paper here.