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DOI: 10.7554/elife.02286.024
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Decision letter: Phosphoprotein SAK1 is a regulator of acclimation to singlet oxygen in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Phosphoprotein
Regulator
2014
Full text Figures and data Side by side Abstract eLife digest Introduction Results Discussion Material and methods Data availability References Decision letter Author response Article and author information Metrics Abstract Singlet oxygen is a highly toxic and inevitable byproduct of oxygenic photosynthesis. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of acclimating specifically to singlet oxygen stress, but the retrograde signaling pathway from the chloroplast to the nucleus mediating this response is unknown. Here we describe a mutant, singlet oxygen acclimation knocked-out 1 (sak1), that lacks the acclimation response to singlet oxygen. Analysis of genome-wide changes in RNA abundance during acclimation to singlet oxygen revealed that SAK1 is a key regulator of the gene expression response during acclimation. The SAK1 gene encodes an uncharacterized protein with a domain conserved among chlorophytes and present in some bZIP transcription factors. The SAK1 protein is located in the cytosol, and it is induced and phosphorylated upon exposure to singlet oxygen, suggesting that it is a critical intermediate component of the retrograde signal transduction pathway leading to singlet oxygen acclimation. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02286.001 eLife digest Plants, algae and some bacteria use photosynthesis to extract energy from sunlight and to convert carbon dioxide into the sugars needed for growth. One by-product of photosynthesis is a highly toxic molecule called singlet oxygen. Typically, organisms deal with stressful events such as the presence of toxic molecules by producing new proteins. However, protein production is generally initiated in the nucleus of the cell, and photosynthesis is carried out in structures called chloroplasts. Cells must therefore be able to alert the nucleus to the presence of toxic levels of singlet oxygen in the chloroplasts. Like some plants that can withstand a gradual decrease in temperature, but not a sudden cold snap, the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of resisting high doses of singlet oxygen if it has previously been exposed to low doses of the molecule. Wakao et al. exploited this ability to hunt for algae that are unable to acclimate to singlet oxygen, and found that these cells are unable to produce a protein called SAK1. Wakao et al. reveal that many factors involved in the algae's cellular response to singlet oxygen depend on the presence of SAK1. In addition, the response of the algae cells to singlet oxygen differs to the one seen in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that the two organisms have found different ways to deal with the same problem. The location of a protein in a cell can give clues to its function. SAK1 is present in the fluid surrounding cellular compartments—the cytosol—which is consistent with it acting as a signaling molecule between the chloroplast and the nucleus. Wakao et al. present further evidence for this hypothesis by demonstrating that the number of phosphate groups attached on SAK1 changes when exposed to singlet oxygen—a feature often seen in signaling proteins. In addition, part of SAK1 resembles proteins that can bind to DNA, which indicates that SAK1 may be directly involved in initiating protein production. The discovery of SAK1 represents a starting point for understanding how the site of photosynthesis, the chloroplast, communicates with the nucleus. It also has implications for developing plants and algae that have a higher tolerance to environmental stress conditions for agriculture and biofuel production. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02286.002 Introduction Growth of photosynthetic organisms depends on light energy, which in turn can cause oxidative damage to the cell if not managed properly (Li et al., 2009). Light intensity is highly dynamic in terrestrial and aquatic environments, and the cell must constantly control the dissipation of light energy to avoid photo-oxidative stress while maximizing productivity. In addition to being the site of photosynthesis, the chloroplast houses many essential biochemical reactions such as fatty acid and amino acid biosynthesis, but most of its proteins are encoded in the nucleus and must be imported after translation. Therefore the nucleus must monitor the status of the chloroplast and coordinate gene expression and synthesis of proteins to maintain healthy chloroplast functions. It is known that signals originating from a stressed or dysfunctional chloroplast modulate nuclear gene expression, a process that is called retrograde signaling (Nott et al., 2006; Chi et al., 2013). In Arabidopsis thaliana the gun mutants have helped to define the field of chloroplast retrograde signaling, leading to the identification of GUN1, a pentatricopeptide repeat protein that is a regulator of this process (Koussevitzky et al., 2007), and pointing to the involvement of the tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathway (Vinti et al., 2000; Mochizuki et al., 2001; Larkin et al., 2003; Strand et al., 2003; Woodson and Chory, 2008). A role for heme in retrograde signaling has been shown in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as well (von Gromoff et al., 2008). Many of the gun studies were conducted in context of a dysfunctional chloroplast treated with norflurazon, an inhibitor of carotenoid biosynthesis. More recently a number of exciting advances have shed light on small molecules playing roles in retrograde stress signaling, including methylerythritol cyclodiphosphate, an intermediate of isoprenoid biosynthesis in the chloroplast (Xiao et al., 2012), 3-phosphoadenosine 5-phosphate (PAP) (Estavillo et al., 2011), as well as a chloroplast envelope transcription factor PTM (Sun et al., 2011). Plastid gene expression involving sigma factors has been implicated in affecting nuclear gene expression, although the mechanism is unknown (Coll et al., 2009; Woodson et al., 2012). Activation of gene expression by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been well documented (Apel and Hirt, 2004; Mittler et al., 2004; Gadjev et al., 2006; Li et al., 2009). Thus ROS have been proposed as a means for chloroplasts to signal stress to the nucleus and many examples of global gene expression changes in response to ROS have been described (Desikan et al., 2001; Vandenabeele et al., 2004; Vanderauwera et al., 2005). Singlet oxygen (1O2) is a highly toxic form of ROS that can be formed in all aerobic organisms through photosensitization reactions in which excitation energy is transferred from a pigment molecule to O2. For example, porphyria in humans is caused by defects in tetrapyrrole metabolism that can lead to accumulation of photosensitizing intermediates, which generate 1O2 in the light (Straka et al., 1990). In oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, 1O2 is mainly generated at the reaction center of photosystem II, when triplet excited chlorophyll transfers energy to O2 (Krieger-Liszkay, 2005). 1O2 is the predominant cause of lipid oxidation during photo-oxidative stress (Triantaphylidès et al., 2008) and is associated with damage to the reaction center (Trebst et al., 2002). Because of the abundance and proximity of the two elements of 1O2 generation, the photosensitizer chlorophyll and O2, it was hypothesized that oxygenic photosynthetic organisms must have evolved robust means to cope with this ROS (Knox and Dodge, 1985). In Arabidopsis, the EX1 and EX2 proteins in the chloroplast are required for the execution of a 1O2-dependent response: growth arrest in plants and programmed cell death in seedlings, that is distinct from cell damage (op den Camp et al., 2003; Wagner et al., 2004; Lee et al., 2007). Different players in 1O2 signaling have emerged recently, such as β-cyclocitral, an oxidation product of β-carotene in Arabidopsis (Ramel et al., 2012), a bZIP transcription factor (SOR1) responding to reactive electrophiles generated by 1O2 (Fischer et al., 2012), and a cytosolic zinc finger protein conserved in Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas, MBS (Shao et al., 2013). In the anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, a σE factor is responsible for the elicitation of the gene expression response to 1O2 (Anthony et al., 2005). The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an excellent model organism for investigation of retrograde 1O2 signaling. Chlamydomonas exhibits an acclimation response to 1O2, in which exposure to a sublethal dose of 1O2 leads to changes in nuclear gene expression that enable cells to resist a subsequent challenge with higher levels of 1O2 (Ledford et al., 2007). We hypothesized that acclimation mutants should include regulatory mutants that are defective in sensing and responding to 1O2. Here we describe the isolation of such a mutant and identification of a cytosolic phosphoprotein SAK1 that is critical for the acclimation and transcriptome response to 1O2. Results Isolation of a singlet oxygen-sensitive mutant that is defective in acclimation Chlamydomonas acclimates to singlet oxygen (1O2) generated by the exogenous photosensitizing dye rose bengal (RB) in the light (Ledford et al., 2007). As shown in Figure 1A, wild-type (WT) cells that were pretreated with RB in the light were able to survive a challenge treatment with much higher concentrations of RB, unlike cells pretreated with RB in the dark. By screening an insertional mutant population (Dent et al., 2005) for strains that were sensitive to 1O2, we isolated a mutant called singlet oxygen acclimation knocked-out1 (sak1) that is defective in acclimation to 1O2 (Figure 1A). We have previously shown that Chlamydomonas WT cells can also acclimate to RB following pretreatment with high light (Ledford et al., 2007), indicating that high light and RB induce overlapping responses to 1O2. When subjected to the same conditions (high light pretreatment followed by challenge with RB), sak1 demonstrated less robust cross-acclimation (Figure 1B). We also tested conversely whether pretreatment with RB can acclimate the cells to growth in high light or in the presence of norflurazon. No increase in resistance to high light or norflurazon was induced by pretreatment with RB in either WT or sak1 (Figure 1—figure supplement 1). The viability phenotypes after RB treatment shown in Figure 1A were paralleled by changes in Fv/Fm values, a chlorophyll fluorescence parameter representing photosystem II efficiency (Figure 1C). In both WT and sak1, pretreatment did not cause an inhibition of photosystem II, as demonstrated by unchanged Fv/Fm values after 30 min. However, pretreatment increased resistance of photosystem II to the RB challenge only in WT and not in sak1 cells (Figure 1C). The pretreatment protected the cells only transiently, as by 90 min of challenge treatment both genotypes appeared to have experienced similar inhibition of photosystem II (Figure 1C), consistent with the hypothesis that sak1 is disrupted in early sensing and/or initiation of 1O2 response rather than its direct detoxification. Figure 1 with 1 supplement see all Download asset Open asset The sak1 mutant is defective in singlet oxygen acclimation. (A) Acclimation phenotype of WT and sak1. The cells were pretreated in the dark (−) or under light (+) in the presence of rose bengal (RB), which requires light for generation of 1O2. Pretreatment was followed by a subsequent higher concentration of RB (Challenge) as indicated under light. (B) Cells grown in low light were either kept in low light (−) or transferred to high light (+) for an hour before challenge in the light with increasing RB concentrations. (C) Fv/Fm values were measured after each time point indicated. Pretreatment (PreT) with 0.5 μM RB was applied for 30 min with (+PreT) or without (−PreT) light. After the pretreatment, RB was added to both dark and light samples to a final concentration of 3.75 μM RB (challenge), and Fv/Fm was measured for 90 min at 30 min intervals (total 120 min). First arrow: addition of pretreatment; second arrow: addition of challenge. (D) sak1 has wild-type sensitivity to other photo-oxidative stresses. Serial dilutions of WT and sak1 were spotted onto minimal (HS) plates at the indicated light intensity or on TAP plates containing the indicated inhibitor. DCMU, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea; low light (LL), 80 µmol photons m−2 s−1; high light (HL), 450 µmol photons m−2 s−1. (E) Gene expression of a known 1O2-responsive gene, GPX5, is induced during acclimation, while two genes associated with H2O2 response, APX1 and CAT1, are not. WT cells were mock-pretreated without RB (white bars) or pretreated with RB in the light (black bars). https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02286.003 In contrast to its RB sensitivity, sak1 exhibited wild-type resistance to high light, various photosynthetic inhibitors and generators of other ROS, suggesting its defect is specific to 1O2 (Figure 1D). When tested for the gene expression response of the known 1O2-specific gene GPX5 (Leisinger et al., 2001) during acclimation, WT cells showed a 20- to 30-fold induction, whereas a known H2O2-responsive ascorbate peroxidase gene (APX1) in Chlamydomonas (Urzica et al., 2012) and a catalase gene (CAT1), known to be H2O2 responsive in Arabidopsis (Davletova et al., 2005; Vanderauwera et al., 2005), were unchanged. The mutant sak1 showed attenuated GPX5 induction, as expected for a mutant defective in the 1O2 response (Figure 1E). The global gene expression response to 1O2 in Chlamydomonas is distinct from that in Arabidopsis To obtain insight into the cellular processes and the genes involved in 1O2 acclimation, we used RNA-seq to define the transcriptome of WT cells during acclimation. The sequences were mapped to the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome version 4 (v4), and 16476 transcripts corresponding to gene models were detected (Wakao et al., 2014). We validated the data by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) for some of the differentially expressed genes during acclimation (Figure 2). Basal expression of some of the genes was elevated in sak1 compared to WT (Cre16.g683400 and GST1, Figure 2). Comparisons of the fold change (FC) values obtained by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR for the genes tested in Figure 2 are shown in Figure 2. The FC values are comparable between the two methods, although genes with FC greater than 20 (detected by RNA-seq) showed FC values (estimated by qRT-PCR) that were two to three times higher (Cre06.g281250.t1.1, Cre13.g566850.t1.1, Cre06.g263550.t1.1, Cre14.g623650.t1.2). Some of the genes were also induced by a transition from low light to high light, although not as strongly (Table 1), indicating that the 1O2 response elicited by addition of RB partly overlaps with that caused by increased light intensity. To examine whether the transcriptome changes were specific to 1O2, we examined the expression of several previously identified H2O2-responsive genes (Urzica et al., 2012) (Table 2). Two of the seven genes, VTC2 (3.4-fold) and DHAR1 (twofold) were induced during 1O2 acclimation, whereas the other five genes were not differentially expressed (induced more than twofold) in our data. For these two genes, their magnitude of induction by 1O2 was smaller than that of H2O2-treated cells (both genes were ∼ninefold induced by 1 mM H2O2 treatment for 60 min) (Urzica et al., 2012). These differences suggest that our treatment with 1O2 did not lead to a large-scale induction of H2O2-responsive genes, and it is likely that the two above-mentioned genes involved in ascorbate metabolism respond to both H2O2 and 1O2. Figure 2 Download asset Open asset qRT-PCR analysis of genes identified to be 1O2-responsive by RNA-seq. (A) The error bars indicate standard deviation of biological triplicates. The locus of the transcript (v5) and gene name if annotated, are indicated. *SOUL1 was named gene in v4 but not in v5. (B) Comparison of fold change values from RNA-seq data and qPCR. Fold change values were calculated for RNA-seq as described in ‘Material and methods’, and the values for qPCR are averages obtained from biological triplicates. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02286.005 Table 1 Moderate induction of 1O2 genes during high light exposure https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02286.006 Fold change (SD)*Gene name or IDWTsak1GPX52.86 (1.06)1.08 (0.23)CFA13.75 (0.99)1.78 (0.52)SOUL23.45 (1.25)1.82 (0.22)MRP33.10 (0.39)2.37 (0.32)Cre14.g6139501.42 (0.53)1.57 (0.46)LHCSR1†14.91 (4.25)2.91 (1.35) * Fold change values are the average of biological triplicates and their standard deviations are indicated in parentheses. † Known to have elevated expression in high light grown cells (Peers et al., 2009). Table 2 Expression of H2O2 response genes during 1O2 acclimation https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02286.007 Gene IDRPKM*Fold change†Gene namev4v5WT-mockWT-RBsak1-mocksak1-RBWTsak1APX1Cre02.g087700.t1.1Cre02.g087700.t1.249.7036.2279.6558.830.730.74MSD3Cre16.g676150.t1.1Cre16.g676150.t1.20.300.180.700.170.600.25MDAR1Cre17.g712100.t1.1Cre17.g712100.t1.235.9538.3033.5351.341.071.53DHAR1Cre10.g456750.t1.1Cre10.g456750.t1.220.4040.9325.6942.182.011.64GSH1Cre02.g077100.t1.1Cre02.g077100.t1.228.2726.9140.4249.950.951.24GSHR1Cre06.g262100.t1.2Cre06.g262100.t1.319.1719.0219.3922.410.991.16VTC2Cre13.g588150.t1.1Cre13.g588150.t1.218.1662.5335.10103.123.442.94 * Average of RPKM obtained from two sequencing lanes as described in ‘Material and methods’. † Calculated as ratio of (RPKM-RB) / (RPKM-mock). During acclimation of WT to 1O2, 515 genes were up-regulated at least twofold with a false discovery rate (FDR) smaller than 1% (Supplementary file 1, C1), and 33% of these could be categorized into functional classes based on MapMan (Thimm et al., 2004) using the Algal Functional Annotation Tool (Lopez et al., 2011) (Figure 3A,B). The enriched classes are marked with asterisks, and the genes within those classes are listed in Table 3. Genes involved in sterol/squalene/brassinosteroid metabolism (in the hormone and lipid metabolism functional classes) were notably enriched (Table 3). A sterol methyltransferase was also detected to display differential expression in our previous microarray analysis (Ledford et al., 2007). Brassinosteroids are not known to exist in Chlamydomonas, and in plants increasing evidence indicates sterols have a signaling role independent of brassinosteroids (Lindsey et al., 2003; Boutté and Grebe, 2009). Two cyclopropane fatty acid synthases (CFAs) were among the up-regulated lipid metabolism genes (Table 3). Another function that was notable among up-regulated genes, although they were not grouped to a common functional class by MapMan, were two genes coding for SOUL heme-binding domain proteins that were SAK1-dependent (SOUL2 and Cre06.g299700.t1.1, formerly annotated as SOUL1) (Figure 2). Genes annotated as involved in transport comprised one of the most enriched classes (Figure 3B). These included a number of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and pleiotropic drug-resistant (PDR) type transporters as well as other various transporters for ions, peptides, and lipids (Table 3). The former types of transporters may reflect the cells' response to pump RB out. When the responses to the chemical RB and 1O2 were uncoupled by comparing gene expression in cultures kept in the dark with and without RB, all of the tested 1O2-induced genes and ABC transporters identified from our RNA-seq remained unchanged by RB in the dark in both WT and sak1 (Table 4). This result indicates that the up-regulation of these genes when RB was added in the light was a response to 1O2 rather than to RB itself. Up-regulation of stress genes included those coding for chaperones and some receptor-like proteins (Figure 3B; Table 3), suggesting that the cells do mount a stress response during acclimation though not visible by gross growth phenotype (Figure 1A) or decrease in Fv/Fm (Figure 1C). A smaller number of 219 genes was down-regulated during acclimation in WT (Supplementary file 1, C1), only 21% of which had functional annotation. The most enriched classes of down-regulated genes were nucleotide metabolism and transport, the latter including a distinct type of transporter for small metabolites and ions, different from those found among up-regulated genes that included many MDR- and PDR-type transporters (Figure 3B; Table 3). Figure 3 Download asset Open asset Differentially expressed genes from pair-wise comparisons. (A) Venn diagram representing differentially expressed genes in WT and sak1. Mapman functional classes distribution of differentially expressed genes (passing criteria of fold change greater than 21 [up] or smaller than 2−1 [down] with FDR <1%) during acclimation in (B) WT and (C) sak1. (D) Differentially expressed genes when comparing WT and sak1 in basal conditions (i.e., before exposure to 1O2). The functional classes represented by the numbers are listed; asterisks indicate classes that were enriched compared to the genome. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02286.008 Table 3 Enriched functional classes among differentially expressed genes in WT during 1O2 acclimation https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02286.009 Primary MapMan classSecondary Mapman classGene ID (v4)Gene ID (v5)Gene nameAnnotationUp-regulated genes transportABC transporters and multidrug resistance systemsCre03.g169300.t1.1Cre03.g169300.t2.1ABC transporter (ABC-2 type)Cre04.g220850.t1.1Cre04.g220850.t1.2ABC transporter (ABC-2 type)Cre11.g474600.t1.1§Cre02.g095151.t1ABC transporter (ABC-2 type)Cre03.g151400.t1.2Cre03.g151400.t1.3ABC transporter (subfamilyA member3)Cre14.g618400.t1.1§Cre14.g618400.t1.2ABC transporterCre09.g395750.t1.2Cre09.g395750.t1.3ABC transporter (plant PDR pleitropic drug resistance)Cre14.g613950.t1.1§Cre14.g613950.t2.1ABC transporter, Lipid exporter ABCA1 and related proteinsCre17.g725150.t1.1Cre17.g725150.t1.2ABC transporterCre04.g224400.t1.2§Cre04.g224400.t1.3ABC transporter (plant PDR pleitropic drug resistance)Cre13.g564900.t1.1§Cre13.g564900.t1.2MRP3ABC transporter, Multidrug resistance associated proteinCre17.g721000.t1.1Cre17.g721000.t1.2ABC transporter (ABCA)Cre04.g224500.t1.2Cre04.g224500.t1.3ABC transporter (plant PDR pleitropic drug resistance)Cre01.g007000.t1.1§Cre01.g007000.t1.2ABC transporter (ABC-2 type)unspecified anionsCre13.g574000.t1.2Cre13.g574000.t1.3Chloride channel 7Cre17.g729450.t1.1Cre17.g729450.t1.2Chloride channel 7amino acidsCre04.g226150.t1.2Cre04.g226150.t1.3AOC1Amino acid carrier 1; belongs to APC (amino acid polyamine organocation) familymiscCre16.g683400.t1.1§Cre16.g683400.t1.2CRAL/TRIO domain (Retinaldehyde binding protein-related)Cre17.g718100.t1.1Cre17.g718100.t1.2Phosphatidylinositol transfer protein SEC14 and related proteins (CRAL/TRIO)Cre06.g311000.t1.2Cre06.g311000.t1.3FBT2Folate transportecalciumCre09.g410050.t1.1§Cre09.g410050.t1.2Ca2+ transporting ATPasepotassiumCre07.g329882.t1.2Cre07.g329882.t1.3Ca2+-activated K+ channel proteinsphosphateCre16.g686750.t1.1Cre16.g686750.t1.2PTA3Proton/phosphate symportermetalCre13.g570600.t1.1Cre13.g570600.t1.2CTR1CTR type copper ion transportermetabolite transporters at the mitochondrial membraneCre06.g267800.t1.2Cre06.g267800.t2.1Mitochondrial carrier protein hormone metabolism*brassinosteroidCre16.g663950.t1.1Cre16.g663950.t1.2Sterol C5-desaturaseCre02.g076800.t1.1Cre02.g076800.t1.2delta14-sterol reductaseCre12.g557900.t1.1Cre12.g557900.t1.1CDI1C-8,7 sterol isomeraseCre02.g092350.t1.1Cre02.g092350.t1.2Cytochrome P450, CYP51 Sterol-demethylaseCre12.g500500.t1.2Cre12.g500500.t2.1SAM-dependent methyltransferasesjasmonateCre19.g756100.t1.1Cre03.g210513.t112-oxophytodienoic acid reductaseauxinCre14.g609900.t1.1Cre14.g609900.t1.1Predicted membrane protein, contains DoH and Cytochrome b-561/ferric reductase transmembrane domainsCre06.g276050.t1.1Cre06.g276050.t1.2Aldo/keto reductaseCre16.g692800.t1.2Cre16.g692800.t1.3Aldo/keto reductaseCre03.g185850.t1.2Cre03.g185850.t1.2pfkB family, sugar kinase-related minor CHO metabolismothersCre06.g276050.t1.1Cre06.g276050.t1.2Aldo/keto reductaseCre16.g692800.t1.2Cre16.g692800.t1.3Aldo/keto reductaseCre03.g185850.t1.2Cre03.g185850.t1.2pfkB family, sugar kinase-relatedcalloseCre06.g302050.t1.1Cre06.g302050.t1.21,3-beta-glucan synthasemyo-inositolCre03.g180250.t1.1Cre03.g180250.t1.2Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase stressbioticCre01.g057050.t1.1§Cre03.g144324.t1Leucine Rich RepeatCre01.g016200.t1.2Cre01.g016200.t1Mlo FamilyCre28.g776450.t1.1§Cre08.g358573.t1PSMD1026S proteasome regulatory complexabioticCre12.g501500.t1.1NF†Cre02.g132300.t1.2Cre09.g395732.t1DnaJ domainCre07.g339650.t1.2Cre07.g339650.t1.3DNJ20DnaJ-like proteinCre01.g033300.t1.1§Cre01.g033300.t2.1No annotation‡Cre16.g677000.t1.1Cre16.g677000.t1.2HSP70EHeat shock protein 70ECre08.g372100.t1.1Cre08.g372100.t1.2HSP70AHeat shock protein 70A lipid metabolismphospholipid synthesisCre13.g604700.t1.2Cre13.g604700.t1.3PCT1CDP-alcohol phosphatidyltransferase/Phosphatidylglycerol-phosphate synthaseCre06.g281250.t1.1§Cre06.g281250.t1.2CFA1Cyclopropane fatty acid synthaseCre09.g398700.t1.1§Cre09.g398700.t1.2CFA2Cyclopropane fatty acid synthase‘exoticsߣ (steroids, squalene etc)Cre01.g061750.t1.1Cre03.g146507.t1SPT2Serine palmitoyltransferaseCre83.g796250.t1.1NF†SPT1Serine palmitoyltransferaseCre02.g137850.t1.1Cre09.g400516.t1TRAM (translocating chain-associating membrane) superfamilyFA synthesis and FA elongationCre03.g182050.t1.1Cre03.g182050.t1Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (AMP-forming)Cre06.g256750.t1.1Cre06.g256750.t1.2Acyl-ACP thioesterasemiscshort chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR)Cre12.g556750.t1.2Cre12.g556750.t1.3Short chain dehydrogenaseCre27.g775000.t1.1Cre12.g549852.t1Short chain dehydrogenaseCre17.g731350.t1.2Cre17.g731350.t1.2Short chain dehydrogenaseCre08.g381510.t1.1§NF†Short chain alcohol dehydrogenaseUDP glucosyl and glucoronyl transferasesCre02.g144050.t1.1Cre02.g144050.t2.1Acetylglucosaminyltransferase EXT1/exostosin 1Cre16.g659450.t1.1Cre16.g659450.t1.2Lactosylceramide 4-alpha-GalactosyltransferaseCre03.g173300.t1.1Cre03.g173300.t1.2Lactosylceramide 4-alpha-GalactosyltransferasedynaminCre02.g079550.t1.1Cre02.g079550.t1.2Dynamin-related GTPase, involved in circadian rhythmsmisc2Cre06.g258600.t1.1§Cre06.g258600.t2.1Predicted hydrolase related to dienelactone hydrolaseacid and other phosphatasesCre06.g249800.t1.1Cre06.g249800.t1.2Sphingomyelin synthaseDown-regulated genes nucleotide metabolismsalvageCre13.g573800.t1.1Cre13.g573800.t1.2Phosphoribulokinase / Uridine kinase familysynthesisCre12.g503300.t1.1Cre12.g503300.t1.2Phosphoribosylamidoimidazole-succinocarboxamide synthaseCre06.g308500.t1.1Cre06.g308500.t1.2CMP2Carbamoyl phosphate synthase, small subunitCre14.g614300.t1.1Cre14.g614300.t1.2Inosine-5-monophosphate dehydrogenase transportABC transporters and multidrug resistance systemsCre06.g273750.t1.2Cre06.g273750.t1.3SUA1Chloroplast sulfate transporterCre02.g083354.t1.1Cre02.g083354.t1ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B (MDR/TAP), member 9calciumCre06.g263950.t1.2Cre06.g263950.t1.3Na+/K + ATPase, alpha subunitmetabolite transporters at the envelope membraneCre08.g363600.t1.1Cre08.g363600.t1.2Glucose-6-phosphate, PEP/phosphate antiportermetalCre17.g720400.t1.2Cre17.g720400.t1.3HMA1Heavy metal transporting ATPaseP- and V-ATPasesCre10.g459200.t1.1Cre10.g459200.t1.2ACA4Plasma membrane H + -transporting ATPasephosphateCre02.g144650.t1.1Cre02.g144650.t1.2PTB12Na+/Pi symporterpotassiumCre06.g278700.t1.2Cre06.g278700.t1.2Myotrophin and similar proteins * Functional terms are inferred by homology to the annotation set of Arabidopsis thaliana (Lopez et al., 2011). † Corresponding gene model was not found in v5. ‡ No functional annotations found on v5 but defined by MapMan on Algal Functional Annotation Tool (Lopez et al., 2011). § Induction during 1O2 acclimation dependent on SAK1 (Table 5). Table 4 1O2 response genes are not induced when RB is added in the dark https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02286.010 Fold change +RB/−RB (SD)*Gene name or IDWTsak1GPX51.13 (0.33)0.87 (0.31)SAK11.38 (0.08)1.29 (0.19)CFA10.90 (0.04)1.44 (0.22)SOUL21.17 (0.25)1.11 (0.19)MRP3†,‡1.13 (0.12)1.07 (0.25)Cre12.g503950†,‡0.93 (0.06)1.20 (0.12)Cre14.g613950†,§0.65 (0.06)0.79 (0.15)Cre04.g220850†,‡1.00 (0.09)1.29 (0.04)Cre09.g395750†,‡1.05 (0.10)1.29 (0.12) * Average of fold change and standard deviation (SD) of biological triplicates. † Annotated as transport function. ‡ ABC transporter. § Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer protein. Although only 33% of the up-regulated genes have a functional annotation (Figure 3B), it is interesting that the 1O2 response in Chlamydomonas involves genes and biological processes that appear to be distinct from those that respond specifically to 1O2 in Arabidopsis (op den Camp et al., 2003). A total of 70 1O2-response genes have been defined using a microarray with the flu mutant in Arabidopsis (op den Camp et al., 2003). These genes include the following classes (number of genes): metabolism (11), transcription (5), protein fate (4), transport (2), cellular communication/signal transduction (17), cell rescue/defense in virulence (4), subcellular localization (2), binding function or cofactor requirement (1), transport facilitation (5) and others (19). From this list of 70 genes we found four similarly annotated genes within our 515 genes induced by 1O2 in Chlamydomonas: a Myb transcription factor, a mitochondrial carrier protein, an amino acid permease,
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    Decision letter: Phosphoprotein SAK1 is a regulator of acclimation to singlet oxygen in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii” is a paper by published in 2014. It has an Open Access status of “gold”. You can read and download a PDF Full Text of this paper here.