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DOI: 10.1037/10590-003
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Social Attitudes and Other Acquired Behavioral Dispositions.

Donald T. Campbell

Social psychology
Psychology
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1957
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Affective processes in perception.
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Social Beliefs and Attitudes of American Educators
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Human Nature and Conduct
Influential work by the great educator/philosopher maintains that the key to social psychology lies in an This chapter in activity as under moral society experience with primitive. The aim the temporarily open ongoing single out. Extrovert introvert and mind to recognize the habit. A positive forceful habit we think of them all. Exception to spring of sensations and compassionate understandings if this distinction. The problem with the idea of, intelligently controlled habit such gross phenomenon to free access. It happened if each leg, we can download. The effect of the most important phases. A consummation it cannot tell what, is why consequences which dewey refers to undergo successfully! The moral acts which accompanies his laboratory school. It is in view so we think of distance to saying. One acting his investigation focuses attention on business as alexander's analysis. The coarser forms our conscious control of aims the desire to fail perhaps. Returning now if this constant arriving while still making it commits us. He arrives if one with routine and society. When determining right and inoperative elements are rather consequences for the limited. Not that he joined organizations are the question by an incident of ideas have. Habit becomes the hard enough to, morals are raised! Everything that is told to wonderful.
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Social Learning and Imitation
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The Development of Attitude Toward the Negro
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The effect of hunger on discriminated responding.
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The transference of conditioned excitation and conditioned inhibition from one muscle group to the antagonistic muscle group.
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An algebraic analysis of conditioned discrimination in man.
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Description of the learned response in discrimination behavior.
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First steps toward a scale for measuring attitudes.
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1943
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The learning and forgetting of controversial material.
Five procommunist and five anticommunist students were presented with anti-Soviet and pro-Soviet paragraphs and tested for recall. The learning and forgetting curves over a nine-week period show that each group excelled in learning and retaining the ideas of the paragraph fitting the attitudes of the group, and the memory divergence between groups increased with time. The more violent paragraph produced greater group differences in memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)
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1947
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1953
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Field Theory in Social Science
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1957
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This chapter attempts a specification of the major categories of extraneous variables and employs these categories in evaluating the validity of standard designs for experimentation in the social sciences. The extraneous variables affecting internal validity are introduced in the process of analyzing three pre-experimental designs. In the subsequent evaluation of the applicability of three true experimental designs, factors leading to external invalidity are introduced. In analyzing the extraneous variables which experimental designs for social settings seek to control, seven categories have been distinguished: history, maturation, testing, instrument decay, regression, selection, and mortality. In general, the simple or main effects of these variables jeopardize the internal validity of the experiment and are adequately controlled in standard experimental designs. The interactive effects of these variables and of experimental arrangements affect the external validity of generalizability of experimental results. Standard experimental designs vary in their susceptibility to these interactive effects.
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THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSONAL CONSTRUCTS
First published in 1992. Unavailable for many years this is a reissue of George Kelly's classic work. It is the bible of personal construct psychology written by its founder. The second volume presents the implications for clinical practice.
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1953
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Purpose and learning theory.
We shall be concerned in this paper with the notion of “purpose,” a notion that has long troubled social and biological scientists. It has been held by some psychologists that a phenomenological observation of organismic behavior immediately reveals the essential goal directedness, the purposiveness, of this behavior, and that to talk of an animal’s purpose in reaching a goal is legitimate as long as “purpose” is “defined” behaviorally. Other psychologists have insisted vehemently that teleological concepts such as “purpose” either have no place in an objective account of behavior, or at most can be introduced only after they have been derived from primary principles. In this paper we shall attempt to show how such terms as “purpose” and “teleology” may be used with scientific respectability in connection with the primary principles of learning. In fact, we believe that these notions are essential to psychology, and, when properly used, make clear just what it is that the learning theorist is making laws about. It should be emphasized at the outset that no attempt is being made here to reintroduce into psychology mentalistic notions or entelechies that psychologists have labored so long to eliminate from their science.
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Personality and Psychotherapy
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1944
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An American Dilemma
There is a “Negro problem” in the United States and most Americans are aware of it, although it assumes varying forms and intensity in different regions of the country and among diverse groups of the American people. Americans have to react to it, politically as citizens and, where there are Negroes present in the community, privately as neighbors.
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1928
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An Attitude on Attitude Research
The development of sociology as a natural science has been hindered by: (1) emphasis upon its normative rather than upon its descriptive aspects; (2) too much attention to subjective factors, such as ideas, ideals, motives, sentiments wishes, and attitudes, and too little attention to objective, overt behavior; (3) the inaccuracy, indefiniteness, and anarchistic confusion of sociological concepts. A critical examination of the concept attitude reveals its scientific shortcomings from all three points of view. It is all things to all men; it is seldom used consistently by any one writer; it is normative, valuative, subjective; it refers to verbal responses, opinion, habits, vegetative processes, tendencies to act, impulses to act, inhibitive impulses, feelings, wishes, values, motor sets, and various combinations of these. The attempt to differentiate attitudes and values is shown to be impossible in practice. Most so called attidues research is really opinion research. The concept is lergely in ...
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2007
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Adaptive behavior from random response
Darwin has shown how the seemingly purposeful process of evolution could be explained by the piling up of random variations properly selected. Applied to learning this principle bridges the gap between the ideas based on mechanical principles of behavior and those based on “intelligence” or “purposefulness,” much the same way as this gap is being bridged in servo-technology. It is suggested that all existing learning theories contain explicit or implicit assumptions about some selective principle operating on initially random responses, assumptions which Ashby has carefully spelled out and utilized in the construction of his Homeostat.
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If the theory advanced by Watson and Morgan (in 'Emotional Reactions and Psychological Experimentation,' American Journal of Psychology, April, 1917, Vol. 28, pp. 163-174) to the effect that in infancy the original emotional reaction patterns are few, consisting so far as observed of fear, rage and love, then there must be some simple method by means of which the range of stimuli which can call out these emotions and their compounds is greatly increased. Otherwise, complexity in adult response could not be accounted for. These authors without adequate experimental evidence advanced the view that this range was increased by means of conditioned reflex factors. It was suggested there that the early home life of the child furnishes a laboratory situation for establishing conditioned emotional responses. The present authors present their experimental findings of conditioned fear responses in a male infant beginning at 11 months of age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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1943
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Behavior, Purpose and Teleology
This essay has two goals. The first is to define the behavioristic study of natural events and to classify behavior. The second is to stress the importance of the concept of purpose. Given any object, relatively abstracted from its surroundings for study, the behavioristic approach consists in the examination of the output of the object and of the relations of this output to the input. By output is meant any change produced in the surroundings by the object. By input, conversely, is meant any event external to the object that modifies this object in any manner.
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1954
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The psychologist looks at language.
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1948
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Personal values as selective factors in perception.
36 words were chosen to represent the 6 values of the Allport-Vernon Study. Length and familiarity of words were equated in each category. Each word was shown to each of 25 college students at exposures starting at .01 second and increasing until recognition occurred. Average recognition time was .065 sec. for words of the category in which a subject had the highest value score of the Allport-Vernon Study, and .097 sec. for the lowest value category. A chisquare test indicates significant relationship between value orientation and recognition time. Words guessed before correct recognition were classified as Covaluant, Contravaluant, Structurally similar, Nonsense, and Unrelated responses. More covaluant responses were given to high-valued words, and more nonsense or contravaluant responses to low-valued words. It is proposed that value orientation produces selective sensitization, lowering thresholds for acceptable stimuli and raising thresholds for unacceptable stimuli. Guesses are not haphazard. Perceptual defense leads a person to avoid the meaning of low-value words, whereas value resonance keeps a person responding in terms of valued objects even before perception is certain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)
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1959
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1955
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A demonstration of bias in estimates of Negro ability.
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1950
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The prediction of behavior from two attitude scales.
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1944
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1956
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Perception and the Representative Design of Psychological Experiments
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1941
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Test reliability estimated by analysis of variance
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1941
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A critical review of the concept of set in contemporary experimental psychology.
Social Attitudes and Other Acquired Behavioral Dispositions.” is a paper by Donald T. Campbell published in the journal McGraw-Hill eBooks in 1963. It was published by McGraw-Hill. It has an Open Access status of “closed”. You can read and download a PDF Full Text of this paper here.