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DOI: 10.1007/s11082-015-0236-9

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# Investigating the optical nand gate using plasmonic nano-spheres

## Hassan Rahmanian Koushkaki,Majid Akhlaghi

Mathematics

Dielectric

Nano-

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The further integration of optical devices will require the fabrication of waveguides for electromagnetic energy below the diffraction limit of light. We investigate the possibility of using arrays of closely spaced metal nanoparticles for this purpose. Coupling between adjacent particles sets up coupled plasmon modes that give rise to coherent propagation of energy along the array. A point dipole analysis predicts group velocities of energy transport that exceed 0.1c along straight arrays and shows that energy transmission and switching through chain networks such as corners (see Figure) and tee structures is possible at high efficiencies. Radiation losses into the far field are expected to be negligible due to the near-field nature of the coupling, and resistive heating leads to transmission losses of about 6 dB/lm for gold and silver particles. We analyze macroscopic analogues operating in the microwave regime consisting of closely spaced metal rods by experiments and full field electrodynamic simulations. The guiding structures show a high confinement of the electromagnetic energy and allow for highly variable geometries and switching. Also, we have fabricated gold nanoparticle arrays using electron beam lithography and atomic force microscopy manipulation. These plasmon waveguides and switches could be the smallest devices with optical functionality.

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nanoparticle syntheses provide a new route to overcome the limitations of a
conventional surface plasmon resonance biosensor, such as detection limit,
sensitivity, selectivity, and throughput. In this paper, optical and physical
properties of plasmonic nanostructures and their contributions to a realization of
enhanced optical detection platforms are reviewed. Following vast surveys of the
exploitation of metallic nanostructures supporting localized field enhancement, we
will propose an outlook for future directions associated with a development of new
types of plasmonic sensing substrates

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Numerical Solution of Steady-State Electromagnetic Scattering Problems Using the Time-Dependent Maxwell's Equations

A numerical method is described for the solution of the electromagnetic fields within an arbitrary dielectric scatterer of the order of one wavelength in diameter. The method treats the irradiation of the scatterer as an initial value problem. At t = 0, a plane-wave source of frequency f is assumed to be turned on. The diffraction of waves from this source is modeled by repeatedly solving a finite-difference analog of the time-dependent Maxwell's equations. Time stepping is continued until sinusoidual steady-state field values are observed at all points within the scatterer. The envelope of the standing wave is taken as the steady-state scattered field. As an example of this method, the computed results for a dielectric cylinder scatterer are presented. An error of less than /spl plusmn/10 percent in locating and evaluating the standing-wave peaks within the cylinder is achieved for a program execution time of 1 min. The extension of this method to the solution of the fields within three-dimensional dielectric scatterers is outlined.

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Investigating the Optical Switch Using Dimer Plasmonic Nano-Rods

The optical switch based on the dimer plasmonic nano-rods on the silicon waveguide has been numerically analyzed. In the proposed switch, the optical switch has been excited by two monochromatic incident plan-waves with the same frequency and two angles of incident θ = 0 and θ = 90. When only the signal with θ = 0 is applied, the incident wave is transmitted and when both signals are applied to the switch simultaneously, the coherent perfect absorption (CPA) occurs and the two incident waves are suppressed. Therefore, the signal with θ = 90 acts as control signal. Since the CPA efficiency depends strongly on the number of plasmonic nano-rods and the nano-rods location, a new efficient binary optimization method based on the teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithm is proposed to design an optimized array of the plasmonic nano-rods in order to achieve the maximum absorption coefficient in the “off” state and the minimum absorption coefficient in the “on” state. In binary TLBO, a group of learner includes a matrix with binary entries, and is used to control the presence (“1”) or the absence (“0”) of nano-rods in the array.

“Investigating the optical nand gate using plasmonic nano-spheres” is a paper by Hassan Rahmanian Koushkaki Majid Akhlaghi published in the journal Optical and Quantum Electronics in 2015. It was published by Springer Nature. It has an Open Access status of “closed”. You can read and download a PDF Full Text of this paper here.