ISSN: 0031-18201469-8161


Publisher: Cambridge University Press

Parasitology is a journal published by Cambridge University Press.You can read and download all the PDFs for the journal Parasitology here on OA.mg

DOI: 10.1017/s0031182000026329
Cited 19 times
Anatomy and histology of the alimentary tract of the female of the biting midge<i>culicoides nubeculosus</i>Meigen (Diptera: Heleidae=Ceratopogonidae)
M M Megahed
The alimentary tract of female Culicoides nubeculosus is simple. There is much similarity between it and that of other nematoceran and brachyceran bloodsucking flies. Among the interesting features observed are the following: 1. The mid-gut is composed of two portions, a tubular anterior segment and a dilated stomach, which show structural differences. 2. The peritrophic membrane, which is absent in the unfed female, forms around the ingested blood. Its substance is secreted by the epithelium of the stomach. 3. A simple rectal valve guards the opening of the small intestine into the rectum. 4. The Malpighian tubules are two in number, and they give attachment to muscular branches from different sources. 5. There are six accessory glands arranged in a rosette around the mouth of each salivary gland proper. Some of them may sometimes function as reservoirs for the secretion of the salivary glands proper. In one specimen, tumours at the base of the stomach and abnormal features in the Malpighian tubules were observed.
MAG: 127721307
Characterization of the messenger-RNA from Plasmodium falciparum and construction of a cDNA library
John E. Hyde, Hall Fr
MAG: 1411855221
Additional findings of nematodes of the genus Oxyspirura (Thela-ziidae) in birds of Czechoslovakia.
V. Barus
MAG: 1470712197
Fly problems on cattle in south west Scotland
R. N. Titchener
DOI: 10.1017/s0031182000026561
Cited 137 times
Studies on the helminth fauna of Alaska
Robert L. Rausch, Everett L. Schiller
It is concluded that E. sibiricensis is the etiologic agent of alveolar hydatid disease in man. The cestode has a wide distribution in Eurasia, and St Lawrence Island apparently represents the north-easternmost extent of its range. The study of the cestode in Europe has been complicated by the co-existence of E. granulosus , which does not occur on St Lawrence Island. Microtine rodents, particularly Microtus spp. and Clethrionomys rutilus , are the natural intermediate hosts of this cestode, although other species of mammals, including man, are parasitized with varying degrees of success on the part of the larval cestode.
DOI: 10.1017/s0031182015000505
Cited 21 times
<i>Toxoplasma gondii</i>seropositivity and cognitive functions in school-aged children
Angelico Mendy, Edgar Ramos Vieira, Ahmed N. Albatineh, Janvier Gasana
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infects one-third of the world population, but its association with cognitive functions in school-aged children is unclear. We examined the relationship between Toxoplasma seropositivity and neuropsychological tests scores (including math, reading, visuospatial reasoning and verbal memory) in 1755 school-aged children 12-16 years old who participated to the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, using multiple linear regressions adjusted for covariates. Toxoplasma seroprevalence was 7·7% and seropositivity to the parasite was associated with lower reading skills (regression coefficient [β] = -5·86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -11·11, -0·61, P = 0·029) and memory capacities (β = -0·86, 95% CI: -1·58, -0·15, P = 0·017). The interaction between T. gondii seropositivity and vitamin E significantly correlated with memory scores. In subgroup analysis, Toxoplasma-associated memory impairment was worse in children with lower serum vitamin E concentrations (β = -1·61, 95% CI: -2·44, -0·77, P < 0·001) than in those with higher values (β = -0·12, 95% CI: -1·23, 0·99, P = 0·83). In conclusion, Toxoplasma seropositivity may be associated with reading and memory impairments in school-aged children. Serum vitamin E seems to modify the relationship between the parasitic infection and memory deficiency.
MAG: 1544570246
Chemoprophylaxis of Onchocerca infections
V. L. Tchakouté, Mark Bronsvoort, Tanya, Alfons Renz, Alexander J. Trees
DOI: 10.1017/s0031182000086248
Cited 1,262 times
The infection of laboratory hosts with cercariae of <i>Schistosoma mansoni</i> and the recovery of the adult worms
S. R. Smithers, R. J. Terry
At present many laboratories throughout the world are studying the chemotherapy and immunology of Schistosoma mansoni in laboratory hosts. Many workers judge the success or failure of their attempts to cure or immunize these hosts from the ratio of the number of living adult worms recovered to the number of infecting cercariae. This ratio is affected, however, not only by the efficacy of any treatment, but also by the methods used to infect the animals and to recover the worms. If these methods result in widely varying worm recoveries amongst the animals in any experimental group, then small but significant effects of treatment might well be missed. Alternatively, such large experimental groups must be used that the work becomes tedious to perform and depends upon the availability of a great deal of technical assistance. This paper describes techniques which are rapid and do not require great skill in their performance. More important, in our hands they have given very consistent results. In this respect, particularly, we believe that these techniques have advantages over others which are currently practised. The techniques described here are those which were used in other investigations reported in this journal (Smithers &amp; Terry, 1965 a, b ). The strain of S. mansoni used throughout this work was isolated in Puerto Rico and was obtained through the courtesy of Dr W. B. DeWitt of the National Institutes of Health. The parasite is maintained in an albino strain of Australorbis glabratus (Newton, 1955). Snails are exposed individually to ten miracidia overnight at 27 °C.
DOI: 10.1017/s0031182000026457
Absence of potentiation between quinine and pyrimethamine in infections of Plasmodium gallinaceum in chicks
Ann Bishop
The effect of combined doses of pyrimethamine and quinine has been studied in P. gallinaceum . No potentiation of the action of the drugs was observed.
DOI: 10.1017/s0031182000017820
Cited 86 times
The ecology of the sheep tick,<i>Ixodes ricinus</i>L.
A. Milne
Since it is concerned with filling in certain details of a picture, long since sketched in outline, the new work in this paper permits only a somewhat disjointed summary. From a study of Ixodes ricinus L. in nature, the main new facts emerging are: (I) Unfed adults in a deep vegetation layer such as presented by rough hill or moorland pasture dominated by bents, heather or bracken. (i) Practically all inactive unfed ticks are in the underlying mat, and nearly all of these in the upper portion of the mat. This distribution does not change, summer or winter. (ii) When the tick is active its progression is practically confined to the vertical, i.e. between its niche in the mat and the vegetation tips immediately above. Random undirected movements due to certain circumstances may achieve a 0–8 in. (average 2 in.) change of position in the horizontal plane; but there is apparently no ruling urge to move in the horizontal plane. (iii) The unfed tick comes to the vegetation tips to await a host for only a limited time during the 3-month activity season. Commonly this amounts to about five periods of 4–5 days each if no host is forthcoming. Between the periods of activity it returns to the upper mat. If it stayed constantly at the tips its survival time would be much shorter than normal. (iv) From nymphs engorged in spring, adults emerge in autumn but remain inactive for a considerable period. About half of them may perish within the first 100 days after emergence. Survivors become active during the following March–June. Effective life ends when the tick, if still unfed, finally stops coming to the vegetation tips, the only position from which a host can normally be achieved. After emergence, the effective life of the unfed adult deprived of a host is less than one year; and the actual life is not much more than one year at best. Thus adults not finding a host in spring will be ineffective, i.e. die without reproducing before the next activity season.
DOI: 10.1017/s0031182009005988
Cited 46 times
Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis control in Cameroon and Côte d'Ivoire: implementing control on a limited budget
L. A. Tchuem Tchuenté, Eliézer K. N’Goran
SUMMARY Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis occur throughout the developing world and remain a major public health problem in the poorest communities with enormous consequences for development. The extent of the problem has long been neglected because these diseases rarely kill at a young age and also because of their insidious nature. Today there exists a momentum and an unprecedented opportunity for a cost-effective control of these neglected tropical diseases. The control of these diseases has become a priority on the agenda of many governments, donors and international agencies. This paper highlights the progress made and future control activities in Cameroon and Côte d'Ivoire, where schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis control measures have been implemented over the past decade with limited budgets. In Cameroon, deworming activities were increased to encompass all ten regions in 2007 as a result of a co-ordinated effort of the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education with national and international partners. In Côte d'Ivoire, focal control activities were achieved with support from various partners. Prospects, opportunities and challenges for the control of neglected tropical diseases in these two countries are discussed.
MAG: 1580225189
Cited 6 times
Isolation and characterization of microsatellites from the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus.
Marlise Ladvocat Bartholomei-Santos, Larissa Schemes Heinzelmann, Riva de Paula Oliveira, Gustavo Chemale, Ariana M. Gutierrez, Laura Kamenetzky, Karen Luisa Haag, Arnaldo Zaha
The Echinococcus granulosus genome was searched for microsatellites using 8 different repeated oligonucleotides as probes (GT15, CT15, AT15, CG15, CAT10, CAA10, CGG10 and CATA10). Southern blot experiments revealed that DNA regions containing GT, CAA, CATA and CT repeats are the most frequent in the E. granulosus genome. AT and CG probes showed no hybridization signal. Two loci containing CA/GT (Egmsca1 and Egmsca2) and 1 locus containing GA/CT (Egmsga1) repeats were cloned and sequenced. The locus Egmsca1 was analysed in 73 isolates from Brazil and Argentina whose strains were previously characterized. Brazilian isolates from cattle strain and Argentinean isolates from camel strain were monomorphic and shared the allele (CA)7. Argentinean isolates of sheep and Tasmanian sheep strains shared 2 alleles [(CA)8 and (CA)10] with Brazilian isolates of sheep strain. The allele (CA)11 was found only in Brazilian isolates of sheep strain at a low frequency. The Brazilian and the Argentinean sheep strain populations were tested for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and only the former was in agreement with the expectations. No polymorphism was found among individual protoscoleces from a single hydatid cyst, validating the utilization of pooled protoscoleces from 1 cyst, grouped as an isolate, in population studies. This work describes for the first time the isolation and characterization of microsatellites from E. granulosus.